Intestinal Ischemia and Infarction is the death part of the intestine due to its blood supply being cut off and also a disease of old age caused by atheroma of mesentric vessels.
The symptoms of intestinal ischemia is abdominal pain. Vomiting, diarrhea, and in some cases, fever can also be seen.
The treatment usually requires a surgery.Wherein the section of intestine that has died should be removed, and the healthy remaining ends of bowel will be reconnected. In some cases, a colostomy or ileostomy is needed. For the blockage of arteries supplying the intestine is corrected if possible.
There are several possible causes of intestinal ischemia and infarction :
Hernia: If the intestine moves into the wrong place or becomes tangled, this can lead to intestinal ischemia.
Adhesions: If the intestine may also become trapped in scar tissue from previous surgery which can lead to ischemia if left untreated.
Embolus: A blood clot from the heart or main blood vessels may travel through the bloodstream and block one of the arteries supplying the intestine. Patients with previous heart attack are at risk for this problem.
Arterial thrombosis: The arteries that supply blood to the intestine may become so narrowed from cholesterol buildup that they become blocked. If this happens in the arteries to the heart, it causes a heart attack, and if it happens in the arteries to the intestine, it causes intestinal ischemia.
Venous thrombosis: The veins which carries blood away from the intestines may become blocked by blood clots. This is more common in people with liver disease, cancer, or blood clotting disorders.
Low blood pressure: Patients with a very low blood pressure, may exist a narrowing of the arteries might also cause intestinal ischemia. This usually occurs in patients who are very ill for other reasons and may be compared to losing water pressure in a hose with a partial blockage.
In a laboratory tests may show an elevated white blood cell or WBC count,a marker of infection and increased acid in the bloodstream. A CT scan of the abdomen may show abnormalities of the intestine.
An angiogram may be obtained and x-rays are taken to show the location of the arterial blockage. None of these tests is foolproof, however, the only sure way to diagnose ischemic bowel is with exploratory surgery.
Intestinal ischemia is a serious condition that if not treated properly can result to death.The outlook depends on the cause. A good outcome may be achieved with prompt treatment.
But we can also prevent this, by eating a nutritious diet and avoid smoking. And a prompt treatment of hernias and a control of risk factors such as heart arrhythmias, high blood pressure, and cholesterol may also help.
Complications on Intestinal infraction may require a colostomy or ileostomy, either temporary or permanent. Peritonitis is common in such cases.
Severe systemic illness with fever and spread of infection to the blood stream or sepsis can result.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.